Reference: Karp, P. D. & Wilkins, D. C. An Analysis of the Deep/Shallow Distinction for Expert Systems. 1986.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between what we term first and second generation expert systems. It gives a behavioral definition of a second generation system, and then analyzes the techniques which are applicable to realizing these behaviors. These behaviours and techniques are related to discussions of "deep" and "shallow" systems in the literature. We challenge a number of arguments regarding the distinction between "shallow" and "deep" programs, and argue that these terms are too vague to be of any use to AI.
Notes: Working Paper.